توضیحات کامل :

 کارشناسی ارشد رشته آموزش زبان انگلیسی درباره پیشرفت درک مطلب شنیداری 

Table of Contents

 

 

Acknowledgement                                                                                      X

 

Abstract                                                                                                      XI

 

List of Tables                                                                                              XII

 

 

Chapter 1: Introduction                                         1

 

 

1.1                 Overview                                                                                       1

1.2                 Statement of the Problem and Purpose of the Study                5

1.3                 Significance and Justification of the Study                               6

1.4                 Research Questions                                                                      7

1.5                 Research Hypotheses                                                                   8

1.6                 What Is Known About Listening                                                8

1.7                 What Is Known About Authentic Materials                              10

1.8                 Definition of Important Terms                                                    12

1.9                 Delimitations                                                                                13

1.10           Limitations                                                                                    14

1.11           Organization of the Master Thesis                                              14

Chapter 2: Review of Literature                            15

 

2.1           Introduction                                                                                    15

2.2           Listening Comprehension                                                              15

2.2.1     Definition of Listening                                                     15

2.2.2     Importance of Listening                                                   17

2.2.2.1     Listening and Academic Success                     18

2.2.2.2     Discovery Listening                                          18

2.2.3     Listening as an Academic Process                                    20

2.2.3.1     Knowledge Required for Listening                  20

Process

2.2.4      Listening Comprehension versus Reading                    21

Comprehension

2.2.5      Listening Comprehension                                               23

2.2.5.1     Authentic and Listening                                 23

Comprehension

2.2.5.2             Different Kinds of Comprehension              24

2.2.5.3             Comprehension Preceding Production         25

2.2.6     Tasks for Listening Comprehension                               25

2.2.6.1     Performing to Indicate Understanding           27

2.2.6.2     Teaching rather than Testing                           28

2.2.7     Inner Speech and Language Learning                             29

2.2.7.1     Listening and Speaking                                    29

2.2.8     Maturation and Language Learning                               30

2.2.8.1     Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal                        31

Development

2.2.9              The Role of Background Knowledge in                       32

Learning Language

2.2.9.1     Schema Theory                                              32

2.2.9.2     Background Knowledge/Prior                      33

Knowledge

2.2.10    Cultural Background                                                      35

2.3      Listening and English-as-a-Foreign-Language Learning           36

2.3.1      The Emergency of Communicative Language             36

Teaching

2.3.2                Communicative Approach: Some Principles              38

and Features

2.4      The Use of Aural Authentic Materials                                        40

2.4.1      Definitions of Authentic Materials                               40

2.4.2      Authentic Materials and Language Performance         41

2.4.3      Nature of Authentic Texts                                             43

2.4.3.1     Characteristics of Authentic Speech             43

2.4.3.2     Authentic Speech and Cultural Aspect         44

 

 

 

Chapter 3: Methodology                                      46

 

 

3.1             Introduction                                                                                   46

3.2             Summary of the Study                                                                  46

3.2.1     Participants                                                                       48

3.2.2     Classroom Observation                                                   49

3.3     Demographic Data of the Students                                               50

3.4     Classroom Environment                                                               52

3.4.1     Setting                                                                                52

3.5     Classroom Practices                                                                       52

3.5.1     Listening Materials Implemented in Class                     52

3.5.2     Class Procedure                                                                53

3.6     Teacher’s Pedagogy                                                                       54

3.7     Interviews                                                                                       55

3.7.1     Interviews with Students                                                 56

3.7.1.1     First Interview                                                  56

3.7.1.2     Second Interview                                              56

3.8     Self-Evaluation Questionnaire                                                     57

3.9     Language Learning Strategy Questionnaire                                 58

3.10   Data Collection                                                                              59

3.11   Analysis of Data                                                                            60

3.12   Validity and Reliability                                                                63

Chapter 4: Results                                                   64

 

4.1             Introduction                                                                                   64

4.2             Summary of the Study                                                                  64

4.3             Results of the Study                                                                      65

4.3.1     Results for Fundamental Research Question:                66

Influences of Aural Authentic Materials

4.3.1.1     Results from the Interviews with Students    67

4.3.1.2     Results from the Class Observation               69

4.3.1.3     Results from the Self-Evaluation                   71

Questionnaire

4.3.2     Summary of Findings Related to the Influences           72

of Aural Authentic Materials

4.3.3     Results for Secondary Research Question#1:               73

Learning Strategy Use

4.3.3.1     Results from the Interview with                     73

students

4.3.3.2              Results from the Class Observation              75

4.3.3.3              Results from the Learning Strategy               76

Questionnaire

4.3.4     Summary of Findings Related to the Learning              77

Strategy Use

 

4.3.5     Results for Secondary Research Question#2:                  79

Attitudes towards Language Learning

4.3.5.1     Results from the Interviews with                      79

Students

4.3.6        Summary of Findings Related to the Students’               80

Attitudes towards Language Learning

4.4   Overall Findings of the Study                                                        80

4.4.1    Students with no Progress in Listening Ability                81

4.4.2    Students with Progress in Listening Ability

 

 

 

Chapter 5: Conclusion                                           84

 

5.1           Introduction                                                                                    84

5.2           Summary of the study                                                                    84

5.3           Discussion of Results                                                                     86

5.3.1     Authenticity of the Listening Materials                         86

5.3.2     Influences of Aural Authentic Materials on                  89

Listening Comprehension

5.3.3     Use of Learning Strategies                                               92

5.3.4     Attitudes towards Language Learning                            94

5.4     Conclusions                                                                                    96

5.5     Recommendations                                                                         102

5.5.1     Recommendations for Further Research                        102

5.5.2     Implications for Teaching                                                103

 

Bibliography                                                                          105

 

Appendices                                                                             123

 

Appendix A                                                                                              124

 

Appendix B                                                                                              125

 

Appendix C                                                                                              129

 

Appendix D                                                                                              131

 

Appendix E                                                                                               137

 

Appendix F                                                                                               145

 

Appendix G                                                                                              147

 

Appendix H                                                                                              148

 

Appendix I                                                                                                149

 

Appendix J                                                                                                150

Appendix K                                                                                              151

 

Appendix L                                                                                               157

 

چکیده

 هدف اصلی تحقیق حاضر بررّسی تأثیر موّاد آموزشی اصیل بر توانایی شنیداری سی نفر از دانشجویان دوره کارشناسی روانشناسی در کلاس مطالعه انگلیسی به عنوان زبان خارجی بوده است. هدف دوّم به مشّخص کردن استراتژی های یادگیری که این دانشجویان استفاده کرده اند و تعیین تأثیر موّاد آموزشی اصیل بر نگرش آنان نسبت به یادگیری زبان انگلیسی اختصاص یافته است.

تجزیه و تحلیل کمّی و کیفی در تحقیق حاضر ارائه شده است. این تحقیق به استفاده از موّاد آموزشی اصیل و موقعّیتهای زندگی حقیقی به عنوان بخشی از روش ارتباطی معطوف شده است. منابع طرّاحی و تحقق آموزش استراتژی موثر شنیداری و رونوشت نوار ویدیویی یک جلسه یک ساعته ثبت و ضبط و مطالعه آماری شد. نتایج آزمون نهایی درک مطلب شنیداری با آزمون اوّلیه با استفاده از آزمون t-test   دو جانبه (2-tailed)  مورد بررّسی و مطالعه آماری قرار گرفت. میانگین استفاده استراتژی با استفاده از آزمون ANOVA  یک جانبه (one-way)  بررّسی و مطالعه آماری شد. نتایج بررّسی داده های کیفی تأیید کننده و هماهنگ با نتایج کمّی بود. تجزیه و تحلیل مصاحبه ها و پرسش نامه ها نشان داد که استفاده از موّاد اموزشی اصیل در کلاس انگلیسی به عنوان زبان خارجی به افزایش میزان آرامش و اعتماد به نفس آنان در شنیدن زبان خارجی کمک کرده است. نتایج پیشرفت معنی داری (P < .05)  در توانایی شنیداری و تأثیر مثبت بر انگیزش دانشجویان انگلیسی به عنوان زبان خارجی برای یارگیری زبان را نشان داد. توصیه هایی برای کمک به غلبه بر دلسردی ناشی از سرعت صحبت گوینده موّاد آموزشی اصیل ارائه شده است. کاربردهای آموزشی این نتایج به همراه تأثیر آنها بر پربارتر شدن درک مطلب شنیداری دانشجویان انگلیسی به عنوان زبان خارجی بررّسی و ارائه گردیده است.

Acknowledgements

It is the highest time I seized the opportunity to offer my most genuine and profound words of gratitude to many people to whom I owe the accomplishment of this research. Among many people who have bestowed, most kindly, their invaluable help upon me I should specifically thank my honorable thesis advisor, Dr.Karkia, who patiently went through every line of this thesis and provided me with many insightful comments and invaluable suggestions. I would also like to extend my sincere appreciation and gratitude to Dr. Ghahremani Ghajar, my thesis reader, for her most professional guidelines, meticulous reading of this manuscript, making insightful suggestions and corrections; for her expertise and time. I am also very much grateful to Dr. Rahimi for her critical evaluation, and judgment of this thesis.

Also my thanks and best wishes go to all students who participated in the present study, without whose cooperation this research would not have been conducted.

Last, by no means least, a truly cordial sense of thankfulness to my parents General Ali Ghaderpanahi and Firooze Nobariyan for their support and everlasting encouragement throughout my educational years.

ABSTRACT

           The fundamental purpose of this study was to examine the influences of aural authentic materials on listening ability of thirty female undergraduate psychology majors studying English as a foreign language. The secondary purposes of the study were to identify the learning strategies used by EFL students experiencing authentic listening texts and to determine the influences of authentic materials on EFL students’ attitudes towards learning English.

A quantitative and qualitative analysis was offered in this study. It basically focused on using authentic materials and real-life situations as part of the communicative approach. Sources for designing and implementing effective listening strategy instruction and the transcript of one-hour videotaped session were recorded and analyzed. The results of the listening comprehension posttest were compared to that of the pretest using a 2-tailed t-test (p < .05). A one-way ANOVA on the mean strategy use was applied      (p < .05).The results of the qualitative data analysis were in line with and confirmed that of quantitative. Analysis of the interviews and the questionnaires revealed that the use of authentic materials in the EFL classroom helped increase students’ comfort level and their self-confidence to listen to the foreign language. Results showed a statistically significant improvement in listening ability, as well as the positive effect on EFL students’ motivation to learn the language. Recommendations were offered to ease students’ frustration that resulted from the speed of authentic speech. Pedagogical implications of the results were discussed along with the impact on EFL students’ listening comprehension development.  

List of Tables

 

Table 1: Source of Data                                                                           48

 

Table 2: Demographic data of Strategy                                                  51

 

Table 3: Analysis of Data                                                                        62

 

Table 4: Interview Results                                                                       68

 

Table 5: Results from Class Observation                                               70

 

Table 6: Students’ Responses on Self-Evaluation Questionnaire       71

 

Table 7: Interviews with Students on Learning Strategy Use              74

 

Table 18: Class Observation on Learning Strategy Use                       75

 

Table 9: Responses to Questionnaire on Learning Strategy Use         78